While the war in Gaza shows no signs of abating, a big question remains unanswered: How did Hamas manage to take Israel by surprise with its October 7 attack?
Despite Israel’s formidable intelligence capabilities, Hamas was able to plan and execute the deadliest attack since the country was founded in 1948.
Hamas-led militants killed and kidnapped scores of Israelis, and Israel has retaliated with an ongoing war in the Palestinian territory.
But history has shown that surprise attacks aren’t always a surprise. Warnings are sometimes missed because of institutional mistakes, a lack of…